# graphical method of data presentation in statistics

Thus, the total area in the histogram blocks represents the total number of volunteers. The researcher should know the target audience who are going to read it. The simplest method of conveying as much information as possible is to show all of the data and this can be conveniently carried out using a Dot plot. Here, we look atmethodsforproducinggraphicalrepresentationsofdataofthetypeswehaveseenpreviously. Further, it is an effective analytical tool and a graph can help us in finding the mode, median, etc. A statistical map would be a great way to visually display our data. However, such presentation is not usually practical with large numbers of subjects in each group because the dots will obscure the details of the distribution. Share Your PPT File. Let us imprint simple and suitable examples of bar diagrams be­low: Volume of population in a number of states in India in 2001 is given below—represents the data with the aid of vertical bars. Statistical Maps . This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. If you want to provide more details about the title, then you can mention them in the footnote below the diagram. These diagrams are used in a situation where two or more related categories are to be compared simultaneously. 7.3 is drawn below on the basis of Table 7.6. Numerical data may be encoded using dots, lines, or bars, to visually communicate a quantitative message. There are many types of graphical representation: 1. Here, the aggregate value of the variable is expressed as the total area of a circle with a reasonable radius. Ogive (1). In a pie chart, a circle is divided into slices, such that each slice represents a different category and the size of the slice is proportional to the relative frequency of that category. But it also has some disadvantages so for that reason, we are giving here some advantages and disadvantages of graphical representation of data. 52.00. It makes data easier to understand also has a lot more advantages like this. Here Fig. Then we draw a complete circle taking any standard radius and put the angles found from the numerical exercise separately at the centre. Table 7.8(A): Educational Expenditure in the Last Five-year Economic Plan: Let us first convert the given data into respective percentages and then into the required angles to be shown at the centre in two more co­lumns and represent them in the following way: Here, angle at the Centre = Percentage x 3.6. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell 2007, Simpson A. PhD Thesis Institute of Primary Care, University of Sheffield, 2004, Freeman JV, Walters SJ and Campbell MJ (2008). Hidden facts may also be detected once such information are presented graphically. This method of presentation retains the individual subject values and clearly demonstrates differences between the groups in a readily appreciated manner. value of the variable is equivalent to an angle of 3.6° at the centre. Furthermore, any hidden trend present in the given data can be noticed only in this mode of representation. PRESENTATION OF DATA This refers to the organization of data into tables, graphs or charts, so that logical and statistical conclusions can be derived from the collected measurements. It is usual to choose between 5 and 15 intervals, but the correct choice will be based partly on a subjective impression of the resulting histogram. Let us now represent a common line diagram below: Line diagrams showing total values of Exports and Imports during 1987-96 have been presented in Fig. We represent the information through an ideal bar diagram. When the various parts of the values of a variable possesses different properties then to express the inherent relationship among them and also with the aggregate value of the variable, pie diagram possibly is the best device. INTRODUCTION A Graphical representation is a visual display of data and statistical results. There are different types of graphical representation and which is used depends on the nature of the data and the nature of the statistical results. Pie Chart (Circle Diagram) (7). Histogram (4). This is constructed by first dividing up the range of the variable into several non-overlapping and equal intervals (also called âclassesâ or âbinsâ), then counting the number of observations in each. Other-wise, it will represent various concave, convex or irregular curves when viewed from the origin. If the number of points is large, a Dot plot can be replaced by a box-whisker plot which is more compact than the corresponding histogram. The entire area in the circle is subdivided into a number of parts by several radii which are separately related to the total area of the circle and also maintain the same proportional relation with the angle at the centre. As the angle at the centre is 360°, it is supposed to express 100 p.c. Figure 1 Dot plot showing birth weight of 98 babies by type of delivery with the medians shown by '+' (data from Simpson 2004). It is another well-known useful statistical weapon to represent raw data decently. Hello friends, I uploaded this video for learning or getting knowledge about Descriptive Statistics Tabular and Graphical Presentation in Statistics Methods A diagrammatic presentation is a simple and effective method of presenting the information that any statistical data contains. 7.1. Share Your PDF File The area of each histogram block is proportional to the number of subjects in the particular birth-weight category concentration group. Advantages of histograms include the ability to visualise the shape of the frequency distribution and to demonstrate central tendency. The origin or the (0, 0) point at the left hand comer should clearly be mentioned so as to discard wrong impression on the process of drawing. Fig. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Besides textual and tabular presentations of statistical data, the third and perhaps the most attractive and commonly used popular modem device to exhibit any data in a systematic manner is to represent them with suitable and appropriate diagrams and pictures. 6. Usually, these bars are placed either vertically on the horizontal axis or horizontally on the vertical axis and they are thus known as vertical bar chart or horizontal bar chart. Line Diagram (2). The techniques of presentation in tabular and graphical forms are introduced. Statistical Maps: When statistical data refer to geographic or administrative areas, it is presented … Data may be presented in (3 Methods): - Textual - Tabular or - Graphical. Graphs enable us in studying the cause and … Component bar diagrams show number of labourers of different categories and their respec­tive percentages for the years 2000 and 2010. Its main purpose is to display quantities in the form of bars. A histogram for all the 98 birth weights in the Simpson (2004) data is shown in Figure 2. A graph is a sort of chart through which statistical data are represented in the form of lines or curves drawn across the coordinated points plotted on its surface. Line Diagram. 1. Note that the figure may be drawn horizontally or … These are then not useable unless summarized. Some recent advances in the use of graphical methods for statistical analysis are reviewed, and several graphical methods for the statistical presentation of data are illustrated, including the use of multicolor maps. In general, pie charts are best avoided, especially if there are a large number of categories (say >5). Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Note that in a bar chart, there is a gap between each bar. Here are some general principles of diagrammatic presentation which can help you make them a more effective tool of understanding the data: 1. You must construct a diagra… Any skew in the data will also be apparent, as determined from the location of the median in relation to the lower and upper quartiles. Expenditure incurred by the Planning Commission of India on Education in the last 5-year economic plan. If they are used, the relative frequency (given as a percentage) should be given for each category, as they can be difficult to estimate visually. Relative frequency histograms, where the y-axis shows the proportion of the observations in each bin rather than an absolute number, allow comparison between histograms made up of different numbers of observations which may be useful when studies are compared. Such a plot is illustrated in Figure 3 for the birth weight and type of delivery from Simpson (2004). This method is useful for comparing data sets side by side. Tables contain the details, so they are useful for looking up specific values. In some other cases, suitable and reasonable gaps in-between two bars may also be allowed. Conventionally vertical bar charts are formed with the time series data. If we define the width of the IQR as the hinge, where the hinge is the upper quartile minus the lower quartile Â then the outlier range is. Graphs are essential as these provide insight for the analyst into the data under scrutiny, and illustrate important concepts when presenting the results to others. Normal, Poisson, Binomial) and their uses, Principles of Making Inferences from a Sample to a Population, Measures of Location and Dispersion and their appropriate uses, Parametric and Non-parametric tests for comparing two or more groups, The appropriate use, objectives and value of multiple linear regression, multiple logistic regression, principles of life-tables, and Cox regression, Principles of life-tables and Cox regression, Comparisons of survival rates; heterogeneity; funnel plots; the role of Bayes' theorem, Identifying and managing internal and external stakeholder interests, Management models and theories associated with motivation, leadership and change management, and their application to practical situations and problems, Dietary Reference Values (DRVs), current dietary goals, recommendations, guidelines and the evidence for them, Section 1: The theoretical perspectives and methods of enquiry of the sciences concerned with human behaviour, Inequalities in health (e.g. Using the data available from a production organisation, Ogives of both the types are drawn below for our ready reference. Frequency Polygon (5). The graphical view is vastly used in every type of data or report. Graphical Representation of Data PPT (Power Point Presentation) Graphical Representation of Data PPT (Line Diagram, Bar Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Curve, Ogive and Pie Chart) ... Lecture Note in Graphical Representation of Data Part 1, ... (Tips and Procedure of Statistical Significance Test) thousand) of five organisations of India in the financial year 2011-12. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. When one wishes to show a relationship between two continuous variables, a scatterplot can be employed. From such a device we can also identify the number of observations lying above or below a certain value of the concerned variable. Data on birth weight and type of delivery are shown in Figure 1 as a Dot plot. Cumulative frequency of less than type is zero for the lowest given value of the variable and similarly cumulative frequency of greater than type is zero for the highest value of the variable considered. However, because data are grouped into intervals, exact values of each observation cannot be determined. Bar Diagram (3). To communicate information clearly and efficiently, data visualization uses statistical graphics, plots, information graphics and other tools. Introduction to Data Analysis and Graphical Presentation in Biostatistics with R Statistics in the Large. METHODS OF DATA PRESENTATION Textual Method Tabular Method Graphical Method METHODS OF PRESENTING This device is applied specially in a situation where the given data can be classified on the basis of a non- measurable criterion e.g., standards of college education in different states of India at the present time. Ø In statistics, the data can be presented graphically using many methods. The Bar Chart: To Construct a Bar Chart, p… It helps the researcher explain and analyze specific points in data. The usual and effective means in this context are: graphs, charts, pictures, etc. Diagrams can present the data in an attractive style but still there is a method more reliable than this. Let us represent a simple pie diagram below constructed with the usual method prescribed and followed for its computation by converting the following information into that diagram. Tufte presents the example shown below from Instituto de Expansao Commercial, Brasil, Graphicos Estatisticas (Rio de Janeiro, 1929, p. 15). The general principle should be to convey as much information as possible in the figure, with the constraint that the reader is not overwhelmed by too much detail. However, it can be hard to visualise individual results where data sets are very large, and weak relationships may not be apparent. distorted data presentation, cumbersome charts, and perplexing pictures. In Statistics, a graphical representation is a visual display of data in the form of a diagram or graph. Two separate line diagrams showing fluctua­tions in the values of exports and imports of India during (1987—96) are shown below: In the diagram drawn above the successive years from the table are shown horizontally and the corresponding values of export and import are shown vertically and the points are located separately on the plane from the middle of the respective years and the lacus of those points exhibit the trend along the line diagrams. While presenting data in textual form the researcher should consider the following factors. Content Guidelines 2. Figure 4 Scatterplot of birth weight by maternal age (Simpson 2004). An additional advantage is … However, only certain limited information can be supplied through a particular diagram and as such each diagram has certain specific limitations of its own. A graphical method is developed which signifies the accuracy of test results. 7.2 Shows population of a number of 5 States in India in a particular year (2001): Volume of production and profit of five different organisations operating under a particular industry with separate productive capacities are given below for the two successive years 2011 and 2012. In this case, as maternal age could theoretically influence birthweight, but not vice versa, then maternal age is plotted on the x-axis and birthweight on the y-axis. Conventionally, the categories in a pie chart are ordered clockwise from the largest slice to the smallest, starting at the 12 oâclock position. 2. Let us make an in-depth study of the graphical representation of statistical data. However, compared to tabulation, this is less accurate. Diagrammatic representation of data : An attractive representation of statistical data is provided by charts, diagrams and pictures. The heights of bars in a bar chart represent the frequencies (or relative frequencies) in each group. Actually speaking, no formal rule as to how much space to be given in between the two bars is there. Further, graphs of statistical data clearly bring out the relative importance of different figures, the trend or tendency of the values of the variables involved can be studied too. A variant of the box-whisker, which shows outliers, is to define a range and only extend the whiskers to the extreme values of the range. For the group elective C5 the whiskers extend only a short distance from the lower and upper quartiles and these are the extreme points in the outlier range. Figure 4 shows a scatterplot of birthweight by maternal age. An ogive is another statistical tool primarily used for finding out different quartiles in a distribution. They include plots such as scatter plots, histograms, probability plots, spaghetti plots, residual plots, box … Thus in Figure 3, we can see that, except for the group elective C5, Â all points are within the outlier range and the whiskers extend to the minimum and maximum values. Scatter plots are a simple graphical method and results can be readily interpreted. It represents the set of data in a meaningful way. The researcher should use a language in the presentation of data that is easy to understand and highlights the main points of the data findings. The median value is indicated by the central horizontal line while the lower and upper quartiles by the corresponding horizontal ends of the box. This kind of a diagram is drawn for a fre­quency distribution of a continuous variable in terms of cumulative frequencies of both the types (more than or less than type). A chart/ graph is a graphical presentation of data, in which the data is usually represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart, or slices in a pie chart. Frequency Distributions. A graph is a very effective visual tool as it displays data at a glance, facilitates comparison, and can reveal trends and relationships within … It is another effective statistical device to represent quantitative data obtainable on many occasions simply and diagrammatically. Successive values of a variable at different periods or places are plotted as separate points on a two dimensional plane and the locus of all those points joined together form a continuous line segment, called line diagram. Write a suitable title on top which conveys the subject matter in a brief and unambiguous manner. Hence, the median wage is OB = Rs. Two or more (but finite number of) line segments can also be drawn on the same quadrant when information on different variables over the same period or time are simultaneously represented using the same unit of measurement along the same axis. Diagrammatic representation can be used for both the educated section and uneducated section of the society. Pages 5-16. Lower quartile - 1.5xhinge to Upper quartile + 1.5xhinge. Too few intervals and much important information may be smoothed out; too many intervals and the underlying shape will be obscured by a mass of confusing detail. Privacy Policy3. Some illustrations provided are real-world examples. value of the variable where 1 p.c. Graphic Displays of Data Two common types of graphic displays are bar charts and histograms. Graphic representation is another way of analysing numerical data. We can thus easily convert the individual given values of the variable into the required angles at the centre. by region, ethnicity, soci-economic position or gender) and in access to health care, including their causes, The impact of political, economic, socio-cultural, environmental and other external influences, Introduction to study designs - intervention studies and randomised controlled trials, 1d - The Principles of Qualitative Methods, 1c - Approaches to the assessment of health care needs, utilisation and outcomes, and the evaluation of health and health care, Copyright Â© Public Health Action Support Team (PHAST) 20, Campbell MJ, Machin D and Walters SJ. While tracing out such a diagram, the usual convention is to show the successive values of the variable under study along the vertical axis in an increasing order and the time dimension along the horizontal axis. 3. It may be noted that diagrammatic represen­tations of statistical information is appealing to the eyes. Advantages of scatterplots are that they can demonstrate associations between two variables, they retain the exact data values (including minimum and maximum values), and that they may make outliers apparent. This is very much necessary mainly to avoid unpredictable and wide fluctuations in the given values of the variable. Bar charts and pie charts can be used to display categorical data. It should carefully be noted that none of the two axes be too long or too short with respect to each other. Data visualization is one of the steps in analyzing data and presenting it to users. Usually, it shows the behaviour of a variable over time. Medical Statistics: a Commonsense Approach 4th ed. 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