The phalangeal formula of the hand is 2-3-4-3-1, meaning that the first or innermost finger of the forelimb has two bones, the next has three, etc. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It had short three-hoofed hands and four-hoofed feet. A partial Triceratops fossil collected in 1997 has a horn that was bitten off, with bite marks that match Tyrannosaurus.  A Triceratops 8 meters (26 ft) long has been estimated by Gregory S. Paul to have massed 9 metric tons (9.9 short tons).  The frequency of injury was found to be 14% in Triceratops. Its ears were attuned to low frequency sounds given the short cochlear lengths recorded in an analysis by Sakagami et al,. The synonymy of Triceratops and Torosaurus cannot be supported, they said, without more convincing intermediate forms than Scannella and Horner initially produced. The dinosaur’s short toes probably terminated in small hooves. Traditionally, these have been viewed as defensive weapons against predators.  Since the Triceratops wounds healed, it is most likely that the Triceratops survived the encounter. Museums Victoria on Wednesday confirmed it has acquired an 87 per cent-complete fossil of a Triceratops horridus dinosaur, dated as 67-million-years-old. Paleontologists investigating dinosaur ontogeny (growth and development of individuals over the life span) in the Hell Creek Formation, Montana, US, have recently presented evidence that the two represent a single genus.  A newer study compared incidence rates of skull lesions and periosteal reaction in Triceratops and Centrosaurus and showed that these were consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure, while lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head. It's somehow fitting that those two massive antagonists lived out their co-evolutionary belligerence through the very last days of the very last epoch of the Age of Dinosaurs.  The most distinctive feature is their large skull, among the largest of all land animals. It was first named Ceratops horridus. :79 Because Triceratops teeth, horn fragments, frill fragments, and other skull fragments are such abundant fossils in the Lancian faunal stage of the late Maastrichtian (late Cretaceous, 66 mya) Period of western North America, it is regarded as among the dominant herbivores of the time, if not the most dominant herbivore. Indeterminate dromaeosaurs are known from other fossil formations.  He nevertheless disputed Scannella's conclusion by arguing in 2011 that the proposed morphological changes required to "age" a Triceratops into a Torosaurus would be without precedent among ceratopsids. Triceratops possessed a gigantic skull, and some individuals had skulls nearly 3 metres (about 10 feet) long, which would place them among the largest of all terrestrial animals. , The theory that frills functioned as a sexual display was first proposed by Davitashvili in 1961 and has gained increasing acceptance since. Traditionally, this was assumed to have incorporated the first three vertebrae which would imply that the frontmost atlas was very large and sported a neural spine. , In 2006, the first extensive ontogenetic study of Triceratops was published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society. Another peculiarity is that the neck ribs only begin to lengthen with the ninth cervical vertebra. The genus Torosaurus resembles Triceratops in geological age, distribution, anatomy and size and it has been recognised as a close relative. Alternatively, it may represent a distinct genus of horned dinosaur or a Triceratops with an unusual cranial morphology. One species of coelurosaur is known from Hell Creek and similar formations by a single species, Richardoestesia. It formally argues that Torosaurus and the similar contemporary Nedoceratops are synonymous with Triceratops. The genus was named in 1923 when its type species Pentaceratops sternbergii was described. Only later did further discoveries reveal that it was actually a horned dinosaur. Bearing a large bony frill and three horns on the skull, and its large four-legged body possessing similarities with the modern rhinoceros, Triceratops is one of the most recognizable of all dinosaurs and the best-known ceratopsid. Among ornithomimids are the genera Struthiomimus as well as Ornithomimus; an undescribed animal named "Orcomimus" could be from the formation. It may be significant that only juveniles were present the outside to meet the battery of the skulls... Feet ) 75 ] its distinguishing features are an elongated skull and the presence of two fenestrae, or,. 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